Spieth closed with a one-under-par 69 for a 72-hole total of 268, three strokes better than the runner-up, his fellow American Matt Kuchar.
His triple-bogey seven was part of a five-shot lead wiped out in three holes, but Spieth told reporters Saturday he had learnt some important lessons from that fateful day at Augusta.
Spieth nearly aced the par-3 14th, then made eagle on the par-5 15th and further birdies on 16 and 17 to leave his playing partner and Ryder Cup teammate shell- shocked after a wild three-shot swing.
Texan Spieth is searching for his third major championship title while the 39-year-old Kuchar has yet to win a major.
After wandering in an out of the golf trucks on the driving range, Spieth somehow saw his approach end up just short of the green, despite being over 100 yards right of the fairway.
After dropping three shots during a nervy front nine as Kuchar drew level, worse was to come for Spieth.
The entire ordeal lasted a half-hour, and started with a drive that had Spieth in the surrender cobra position as protracer showed his ball sailing off the entire hole.
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Spieth leads 2 strokes as Kuchar bogeyed the sixth.
He's only the second player to win three legs of the Grand Slam of golf before the age of 23.
That year he had a shot at the third leg of an unprecedented calendar Grand Slam, missing out on an Open playoff by one shot at St. Andrews.
The duo reached the 13th tee on -8 as joint-leaders, two shots clear of the field, when Spieth's tee-shot went well right. He had lost the lead for the first time in the tournament and was in danger of losing, before his incredible birdie-eagle-birdie run on 14,15 and 16.
Haotong Li finished in third place at six-under after carding a magnificent 63 on the final day.
He walked up between the grandstands lining the 18th to a huge ovation and made a safe par to join illustrious names such as Arnold Palmer, Lee Trevino, Peter Thomson and Tom Watson who have won the Open at Royal Birkdale. The only major left in 2017 is the PGA Championship.
"This is absolutely a dream come true".