The arrest was recorded at the Police Club in Peroorkada, after a three-hour long interrogation of the MLA by the investigators at the Legislators' Hostel here.
Vincent, a first-time MLA, however, alleged that there was a "political conspiracy" behind the allegation against him and filed a complaint with police, demanding a comprehensive probe into the matter.
Her statement was also recorded by the city magistrate at a hospital in Neyyatinkara, where she is undergoing treatment.
The MLA has applied for anticipatory bail from a court.
As per the statement of the woman's husband, the MLA has been harassing the woman over phone for several months.More news: Tour de France Stage 19: Boasson Hagen finally gets elusive victory
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Senior women leaders in the Congress party M. Bindu Krishna and Shanimol Usman have asked Vincent to step down as legislator and face the probe.
Vincent said he was arrested due to pressure on the police from the chief minister's office.
He went on to allege that one of CPI-M leaders was present at her residence when she allegedly consumed the sleeping pills.
The police had filed a case for rape attempt against Vincent on the basis of the complaint of the woman. Rape and assault charges were added after SIT chief Ajeetha Begum recorded her statement at the hospital.
It was then that the MLA had a non-consensual relation with the woman where she was allegedly repeatedly sexually abused at her house. While being taken to the court, Vincent said, "I will not quit". In the audio, Vincent reportedly threatens him that he would commit suicide if the incident was made public.
State Congress president MM Hassan described Vincent's arrest as "politically motivated".